“An oxidation-reduction system, or redox reaction, involves the transfer of electrons from a reductant to an oxidant according to the following equation”^{2}: *(fig. 1)*

At equilibrium, the redox potential (*E*), or oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), is calculated according to the Nernst equation *(fig. 2)* where *R* (gas constant), *T* (temperature in degrees Kelvin), and *F* (Faraday constant) are constants. *E*_{0} is the standard potential of a redox system measured with respect to a hydrogen electrode, which is arbitrarily assigned an *E*_{0} of 0 volts, and n is the number of electrons transferred.

- A higher ORP (according to equation 2) suggests a larger oxidant concentration, which is typical in diseases where oxidative stress is implicated
- A lower ORP suggests a larger reductant concentration, which would be expected from plasma under normal physiological conditions

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**The RedoxSYS® System** provides both an aggregate measure of redox imbalance (static ORP, which is the tendency of a system to either donate or take up electrons) and an aggregate measure of antioxidant reserves (capacity ORP, which is measured in coulombs or concentration).

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